Published Date: 2016-11-11 12:54:47
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Russia (08): (VL) bovine, economics, public hlth, RFI
Archive Number: 20161111.4621252
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - RUSSIA (08): (VLADIMIR) BOVINE, ECONOMICS, PUBLIC HEALTH, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Wed 9 Nov 2016
Source: Provladimir News, transcribed from radio "Salt", program "Region on-line" of 7 Nov 2016 [Russian, machine trans., edited]
[The track of the radio program can be listened to (in Russian) at https://soundcloud.com/salt_zone/region-line-hd-07112016]
Radio talk between narrator Valentine Ivakin [VI] and regional journalist Ivan Rostovtsev [IR]:
VI: Throughout the entire country and, moreover, even abroad, the public became aware of events in the Vladimir area, namely the identification there of FMD [foot and mouth disease]. As a result, many foreign companies refused to buy milk products from the Vladimir region, in view of circulating rumors that milk, cheese, and other products became dangerous because one could get infected. What is the situation at present? And, please include some background for those who have missed it earlier.
IR: Indeed, an outbreak of foot and mouth disease occurred in one area in the Vladimir region. More precisely, just in one farm of the Vladimir region. This was a relatively small farm with about 1000 "heads", only a part of them infected. As a result, the entire farm's livestock were destroyed by a special technology and buried. The facility probably burned. The establishment itself will continue to exist, the destroyed part to be restored. This farm was connected to the dairy "Opole", which is one of the largest milk/dairy producers in Russia in general and belongs to the concern "Wimm-Bill-Dann". In consultation with the federal inspection authority Rospotrebnadzor, the representatives of the company decided to recall all products.
VI: Almost 1/3 of the total manufactured products for the period in question.
IR: From 1 to 19 Oct 2016, about 4000 tons [4064 tonnes] of milk and dairy products. The company suffered huge losses of 100 million rubles [USD 1.5 million; see comment], or even more. Though, probably, more damage was inflicted upon its reputation while the company's competitors, of course, were not asleep. The event also affected trade with foreign countries, Belarus and Kazakhstan, which have canceled all shipments of dairy products and even meat from the Vladimir region and from Russia. All this while, in fact, up to this moment, the milk was harmless: no FMD virus found in any of the dairy products. The FMD virus is killed at 60 [deg C/140 deg F]. The recall measure is considered to have been excessive.
VI: I know that local officials also protected the producers of milk and dairy products, and videos from their actions traveled around the internet. Can you tell us something about that before the end of our talk?
IR: The vice-governor of the Vladimir region, Roman Rusanov, who oversees agriculture, drank on live television a glass of "Opole" milk, to show that it is not infected. However, since the incubation period for the infection of FMD is from 2 to 12 days we are still waiting to see if the milk was indeed free of the virus. At least, we certainly wish health to our vice-governor.
[byline: Dmitry Reznikov]
[The decision to recall nearly 4000 tons of milk and dairy products, produced between 1-19 Oct 2016 by a central plant which handled milk from an 'FMD Asia-1' infected cattle farm in Vladimir, was mainly the outcome of an assumption that FMD is zoonotic. This assumption has been widely disseminated by the media and the social networks throughout the Russian Federation as well as in neighbouring countries with Russian-speaking populations (such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan), since the notification of the event on 20 Oct 2016. It appears that this (exceptional) assumption (which is not shared by ProMED-mail, or by the international FMD scientific establishment, or the world's public/animal health organisations), seems to prevail in Russia also in medical circles and official authorities, as demonstrated by the following recent examples:
1. Rosselkhoznadzor (Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance), published in its web-page "Regional News" dated 11 Nov 2016 minutes from a meeting of the Voronezh regional Department of Agrarian Policy, discussing the FMD situation. "The meeting participants heard presentations about the epizootic situation on FMD in the Russian Federation on measures to prevent foot and mouth disease among people".
2. The Svobodnenskaya Hospital in Svobodny (Amur oblast, Russian Far East) published on 9 Nov 2016 a detailed review (about 1000 words) titled "What is foot and mouth disease?" which refers to the human-health aspects of the disease. Some excerpts follow:
- "The incubation period of the disease is an average of 3 to 4 days, but can take from 10 to 14 days, or conversely be reduced to 2 days. Disease process begins with strong chills, and the temperature rises to 40 deg C [104 deg F]. These symptoms are added to headache, decreased appetite, muscle pain, particularly in the lumbar region. On the 1st day of the disease, the patient feels a burning sensation and dryness in the mouth, as well as strong salivation. After some time, small vesicles (approx. 1-3 mm in diameter) appear on the mucosa of the mouth. The largest cluster of them is located on the tip and on the edges of the tongue, as well as in the gums, mucous membrane of the cheeks and lips. The liquid that fills the vesicles is transparent, gradually becoming turbid, the diameter of bubbles is increased, forming the erosion" (a picture included).
- "People with wounds or abrasions on hands and other exposed body parts should not be allowed to handle sick animals."
- "Infected children complain about difficult swallowing, as well as pains in speaking and chewing. Because of this, they become irritable and then completely refuse eating. Often, salivation can be so strong that the saliva flows as a stream. Rashes and vesicles can also involve the mucous membranes of the nose, conjunctiva, stomach. In addition to the mucous membranes, rashes may appear on the face, arms, hands, feet and legs; most often they are found between the toes. In uncomplicated cases, the fever lasts for 3 to 6 days, followed by the recovery period which is accompanied by a rapid healing of ulcers. The total duration of the disease is about 2 weeks."
- "If the virus enters [in children] through the digestive tract, the stomatitis may not appear. In this case, the disease is characterised as acute gastroenteritis. There are symptoms of intoxication, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Typically, this form of the disease occurs in children who are infected by the milk and milk products. In most cases, there is complete recovery, without left traces. However a highly pathogenic form of FMD may affect children of young age which may even be fatal".
For the full review (In Russian) please refer to http://www.svbhospital.ru/?p=3565.
3. A rather similar review has been published on the same date (9 Nov 2016) by an official regional website covering a territory on the opposite, western side of Russia, namely Morshansk. This review is signed by the chairman of the committee on social politics of the city administration, NV Suchkova.
See at http://morshansk.bezformata.ru/listnews/yashur-eto-dolzhen-znat/52156162/ (in Russian).
The question remains, on what grounds has this disease description, viewing FMD as a serious zoonosis, been based. As far as we have been able to check, medical publications addressing clinical FMD in humans were published in the Soviet Union many years back; for example, "A Kravchenko, et al: Foot and mouth disease - human. Medicine. Moscow, 1975. 72 pages" (with black-and-white pictures).
As stated, the Russian views cited referring to FMD as a (serious) zoonosis, is NOT shared by ProMED-mail. Having said that, science-based references for the contrary from Russian experts will be welcomed.
The FMD outbreak in the Vladimir oblast was lab confirmed and recognized as an "FMDV Asia 1 event" on 19 Oct 2016. It was initially reported to the OIE on 21 Oct 2016. The 1st follow-up report was duly submitted a week later, namely on 27 Oct 2016. The subsequent weekly follow-up report is pending.
More than 3 weeks after its confirmation, the isolate's genotyping results are anticipated. Their delayed publication breeds speculations (http://www.mk.ru/social/2016/11/10/yashhur-v-moloko-mog-probratsya-iz-ya...).
The direct losses of the producer/distributor by the milk/dairy products recall -- "100 million rubles or even more" -- amount to a minimum of USD 1.55 million. The expenses related to the culling of the herd and the destruction of the facility may have exceeded those of the recall. Indirect losses, both within and outside Russia, to the involved producer as well as to Russia's dairy industry at large, are yet to be calculated. - Mod.AS
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/18153.]