Publications

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Mass vaccination, immunity and coverage: modelling population protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Turkish cattle

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Turkey is controlled using biannual mass vaccination of cattle. However, vaccine protection is undermined by population turnover and declining immunity. A dynamic model of the Turkish cattle population was created. Assuming biannual mass vaccination with a single-dose primary course, vaccine history was calculated for the simulated population (number of doses and time since last vaccination). This was used to estimate population immunity. Six months after the last round of vaccination almost half the cattle aged <24 months remain unvaccinated.

Complete Genome Sequence of a Serotype A Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus from an Outbreak in Saudi Arabia during 2015

The complete genome of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) type A virus isolated from cattle in Saudi Arabia in 2015 is described here. This virus belongs to an FMD virus lineage named genotype VII, which is normally endemic on the Indian subcontinent.

Time Clustered Sampling Can Inflate the Inferred Substitution Rate in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Analyses

With the emergence of analytical software for the inference of viral evolution, a number of studies have focused on estimating important parameters such as the substitution rate and the time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) for rapidly evolving viruses. Coupled with an increasing abundance of sequence data sampled under widely different schemes, an effort to keep results consistent and comparable is needed.

Structure-based energetics of protein interfaces guides foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine design

Virus capsids are primed for disassembly, yet capsid integrity is key to generating a protective immune response. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids comprise identical pentameric protein subunits held together by tenuous noncovalent interactions and are often unstable. Chemically inactivated or recombinant empty capsids, which could form the basis of future vaccines, are even less stable than live virus.

Using Mathematical Modelling to Explore Hypotheses about the Role of Bovine Epithelium Structure in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus-Induced Cell Lysis

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. FMD virus (FMDV) shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and FMD is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue). By contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate). The reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses are difficult to test experimentally.

Complete Genome Sequences of Serotype O Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Recovered from Experimental Persistently Infected Cattle

For the first time, the complete genome sequences of the six serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses from persistently infected carrier cattle are reported here. No consistent amino acid changes were found in these viruses obtained from persistently infected cattle compared with the complete genome of the parent virus that was used to infect the cattle.

Virus Excretion from Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Carrier Cattle and Their Potential Role in Causing New Outbreaks

The role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from FMDV infection. In this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of FMDV infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence.

Impact of foot-and-mouth disease on milk production on a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya

The economic impact of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been poorly characterised particularly in endemic settings where such knowledge is important for decision-making on disease control with limited resources. In order to address this, a study was designed using individual animal data from a large-scale dairy farm in Kenya to estimate the impact of an FMD outbreak due to serotype SAT2 virus on milk yield. Daily milk yields from 218 mainly European-breed cattle that were lactating during the 29-day outbreak period were considered in the analysis.

Molecular Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses Collected in Tanzania Between 1967 and 2009

This paper describes the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) recovered from outbreaks in Tanzania that occurred between 1967 and 2009. A total of 44 FMDV isolates, containing representatives of serotypes O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2 from 13 regions of Tanzania, were selected from the FAO World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD) virus collection. VP1 nucleotide sequences were determined for RT-PCR amplicons, and phylogenetic reconstructions were determined by maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining methods.

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